References and Sources - Energy Transition Calculator

This list of references gives an overview of the values and parameters used by the Energy Transition Calculator and names sources which have been used.

Do you have different or more accurate values please let us know. Please send your suggestions (quoting author, title, date of publication, URL) with the subject "Energy Transition Calculator" to:

Surface area

Buildings and associated open space :
      24416 km² ( Source: Statistisches Bundesamt; Stastistik Flächennutzung; 2008; URL: http://www.dest... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Roofs (estimated total) :
      2400 km² ( Source: SFV; Solarpotential-Abschätzung für Deutschland; 12.12.2007; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: 10% of building surface area )
Facades (estimated total) :
      480 km² ( Source: SFV; Solarpotential-Abschätzung für Deutschland; 12.12.2007; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: 20% of roof surface area on buildings )
Noise barriers (future, estimated total) :
      870 km² ( Source: SFV; Solarpotential-Abschätzung für Deutschland; 12.12.2007; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: 5% of public thoroughfares area )
Public Thoroughfares (total, incl verges) :
      17790 km² ( Source: Statistisches Bundesamt; Stastistik Flächennutzung; 2008; URL: http://www.dest... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Agricultural land :
      187646 km² ( Source: Statistisches Bundesamt; Stastistik Flächennutzung; 2008; URL: http://www.dest... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Woodland :
      107349 km² ( Source: Statistisches Bundesamt; Stastistik Flächennutzung; 2008; URL: http://www.dest... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Sea surface area (with water depth < 40 m) :
      2850 km² ( Source: SFV; Bundesregierung geht von 25.000 MW offshore bis 2030 aus. Der SFV hat als obere Grenze vorläufig rund den dreifachen Wert angesetzt.; URL: http://www.bsh.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: 5% of Exclusive Economic Zone (Deutscher Festlandsockel Nord- und Ostsee; 57 000 sq km according to Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie) )

Surface use

Agricultural land (Biomass) :
      100 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Woodland (Biomass) :
      100 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )

Energy sources

Yield (Solar thermal) :
      330 GWh/(km²*a) ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Percentage surface use (Solar thermal - CSP) :
      50 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Full load hours (Solar thermal - CSP) :
      670 GWh/(GW*a) ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Surface power density (Solar thermal - CSP) :
      0,01 GW/km² ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Percentage Electricity Generation (Biomass residues) :
      30 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Efficiency Electricity Generation (Biomass residues) :
      30 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Percentage of used residual heat of biomass residues (Biomass residues) :
      50 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Technical potential for energy from liquid manure, sewage and other not materially usable biomass residues used (Biomass residues) :
      85600 GWh ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Percentage Electricity Generation (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      30 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Efficiency Electricity Generation (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      30 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Percentage of used residual heat of biomass - surface-independent (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      80 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Yield (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      4 GWh/(km²*a) ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Miscanthus (solid material) (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      8 kWh/(m²*a) ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Sugar beet / Fodder carrot as biogas (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      4,8 kWh/(m²*a) ( Source: SFV; Energiewenderechner von 2007; )
Maize as biogas (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      4,2 kWh/(m²*a) ( Source: SFV; Energiewenderechner von 2007; )
Forest wood as solid material (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      4 kWh/(m²*a) ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Grasses as biogas (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      2,9 kWh/(m²*a) ( Source: SFV; Energiewenderechner von 2007; )
fast-wood as solid material (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      2,5 kWh/(m²*a) ( Source: SFV; Energiewenderechner von 2007; )
Sunflower as vegetable oil (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      1,5 kWh/(m²*a) ( Source: SFV; Energiewenderechner von 2007; )
Rape as vegetable oil (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      1,1 kWh/(m²*a) ( Source: SFV; Energiewenderechner von 2007; )
Camelina as vegetable oil (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      0,12 kWh/(m²*a) ( Source: SFV; Energiewenderechner von 2007; )
Percentage Electricity Generation (Geothermal) :
      80 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Efficiency Electricity Generation (Geothermal) :
      20 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Percentage of used residual heat of geothermal (Geothermal) :
      50 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Yield surface-independent (Geothermal) :
      300000 GWh ( Source: Büro für Technikfolgenabschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag; Möglichkeiten geothermischer Stromerzeugung in Deutschland, Arbeitsbericht Nr. 84; Februar 2003; URL: http://www.tab.... ; retrieved: 01/2010; )
Full load hours (Photovoltaics) :
      850 GWh/(GW*a) ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Surface power density (Photovoltaics) :
      0,1 GW /km² ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Full load hours (Wind on shore) :
      1600 GWh/(GW*a) ( Source: SFV; own estimate; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Surface power density (Wind on shore) :
      0,02 GW /km² ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Full load hours (Wind offshore) :
      2500 GWh/(GW*a) ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Surface power density (Wind offshore) :
      0,025 GW /km² ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Area for wind power (See Surface use) :
       ( URL: #flaechenverwen... ; )
Yield surface-independent (Hydropower) :
      30000 GWh ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )

Costs

Biomass :
      0,07 Euro ( Source: EEG 2009; §§ 23-33; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Geothermal :
      0,16 Euro ( Source: EEG 2009; §§ 23-33; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Photovoltaics (at present without degression) :
      0,43 Euro ( Source: EEG 2009; §§ 23-33; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Wind onshore :
      0,09 Euro ( Source: EEG 2009; §§ 23-33; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Wind offshore :
      0,15 Euro ( Source: EEG 2009; §§ 23-33; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Hydropower :
      0,035 Euro ( Source: EEG 2009; §§ 23-33; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )

Costs - degression

PV Costs 2009 :
      0,43 Euro/kWh ( Source: EEG 2009; §§ 23-33; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: Baseline value for automatic calculation of degression )
PV Generation 2009 :
      5000 GWh ( Source: Bundesministerium für Umwelt; Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen; 2008; URL: http://www.erne... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: Baseline value for automatic calculation of degression: Approx. 4000 GWh for 2008 )
Price drop when global accumulated production doubles :
      20 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; Comment: Baseline value for automatic calculation of degression )
Ratio of time required for doubling the so far nationally installed quantity to the time required for doubling the so far globally installed quantity of solar moduls :
      0,5 ( Source: SFV; own estimate; Comment: Baseline value for automatic calculation of degression. Default g = 0.5, that means doubling the nationally installed quantity only takes half of the time of doubling the globally installed quantity )

Final energy yield

Storage / effectivity loss for solar thermal :
      50 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Emergency reserve in days :
      40 d ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Conversion loss (Atmosph.CO2 to Methanol) :
      55 % ( Source: Michael Specht und Andreas Bandi; Production of liquid fuels from atmospheric CO2; 1995; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 05/2010; )
Reconversion loss (Methanol to electricity - Combined cycle power plant with combined heat and power) :
      40 % ( Source: Michael Sterner; Bioenergy and renewable power methane in integrated 100% renewable energy systems; 09/2009; URL: http://www.upre... ; retrieved: 05/2010; )
Energy density (Methanol) :
      4800 kWh/m³ ( Source: Wikipedia; Fuel; URL: http://de.wikip... ; retrieved: 05/2010; )
Conversion loss (Atmosph.CO2 to Methane) :
      37 % ( Source: Michael Sterner; Bioenergy and renewable power methane in integrated 100% renewable energy systems; 09/2009; URL: http://www.upre... ; retrieved: 05/2010; )
Reconversion loss (Methane to electricity - Combined cycle power plant with combined heat and power) :
      40 % ( Source: Michael Sterner; Bioenergy and renewable power methane in integrated 100% renewable energy systems; 09/2009; URL: http://www.upre... ; retrieved: 05/2010; )
Energy density Methane (gaseous 200 bar) :
      2580 kWh/m³ ( Source: Wikipedia; Fuel; URL: http://de.wikip... ; retrieved: 05/2010; )
Conversion loss (Water to Hydrogen by electrolysis) :
      30 % ( Source: Wikipedia; Electrolysis; URL: http://de.wikip... ; retrieved: 05/2010; )
Reconversion loss (Hydrogen to electricity by fuel cell) :
      35 % ( Source: Netzwerk Brennstoffzelle und Wasserstoff NRW; Efficiency; URL: http://www.bren... ; retrieved: 05/2010; )
Energy density Hydrogen (gaseous 200 bar) :
      530 kWh/m³ ( Source: Wikipedia; Fuel; URL: http://de.wikip... ; retrieved: 05/2010; )
Percentage Electricity Storage :
      50 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Loss because of Electricity Storage :
      15 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Heat from electricity - Average for different technologies from arc to heat pump :
      150 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; URL: http://www.sola... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Fuel ground vehicles so far - volume :
      50 Millionen t ( Source: Mineralölwirtschaftsverband; Verbrauch 2008; 2009; URL: http://www.mwv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: Approx. 600 TWh )
Fuel ground vehicles so far - Yield factor :
      12 TWh/Mill t ( Source: BP; Statistical Review of World Energy 2010; 06/2010; URL: http://www.bp.c... ; retrieved: 08/2010; Comment: pdf file, p 44, Appendices - Approximate conversion factors )
Fuel ground vehicles - replaced by electricity :
      -50 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Fuel airplanes so far - volume :
      9 Millionen t ( Source: Mineralölwirtschaftsverband; Verbrauch 2008; URL: http://www.mwv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: Approx. 108 TWh )
Fuel airplanes so far - Yield factor :
      12 TWh/Mill t ( Source: BP; Statistical Review of World Energy 2010; 06/2010; URL: http://www.bp.c... ; retrieved: 08/2010; Comment: pdf file, p 44, Appendices - Approximate conversion factors )
Fuel airplanes - replaced by electricity :
      70 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: Generating hydrogen electrolytically with electricity from solar or wind plants for usage in jet engines leads to a higher energy consumption in total. This is due to the poor efficiency of electrolysis and hydrogen liquefaction. )
Fuel ships so far - volume :
      3 Millionen t ( Source: SFV / Mineralölwirtschaftsverband; Auswertung Verbrauchsstatistik 2008 des Mineralölwirtschaftsverbandes; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; Comment: Approx 36 TWh )
Fuel ships so far - Yield factor :
      12 TWh/Mill t ( Source: BP; Statistical Review of World Energy 2010; 06/2010; URL: http://www.bp.c... ; retrieved: 08/2010; Comment: pdf file, p 44, Appendices - Approximate conversion factors )
Fuel ships - decrease of energy demand by operating the engine with electricity and supporting it by wind energy :
      -40 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Heating fuels low temperature so far volume :
      92 Millionen t ( Source: SFV / Mineralölwirtschaftsverband; Auswertung Verbrauchsstatistik 2008 des Mineralölwirtschaftsverbandes; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Heating fuels low temperature so far - Yield factor :
      12 TWh/Mill t ( Source: BP; Statistical Review of World Energy 2010; 06/2010; URL: http://www.bp.c... ; retrieved: 08/2010; Comment: pdf file, p 44, Appendices - Approximate conversion factors )
Heating fuels low temperature - equates to heat demand :
      -10 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Heating fuels high temperature so far - volume :
      25 Millionen t ( Source: SFV / Mineralölwirtschaftsverband; Auswertung Verbrauchsstatistik 2008 des Mineralölwirtschaftsverbandes; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Heating fuels high temperature so far - Yield factor :
      12 TWh/Mill t ( Source: BP; Statistical Review of World Energy 2010; 06/2010; URL: http://www.bp.c... ; retrieved: 08/2010; Comment: pdf file, p 44, Appendices - Approximate conversion factors )
Heating fuels high temperature so far - replaced by electricity :
      0 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Electricity demand so far :
      599 TWh ( Source: BDEW; Netto-Stromerzeugung 2008; URL: http://www.bdew... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Percentage of electricity from renewables :
      16 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Sufficiency of conventional electricity production :
      40 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Electricity - decreased / increased demand due to sufficiency or increased needs :
      -10 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Percentage used heat in CHP (combined heat and power) plants :
      5 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Additional CHP heat produced by renewables :
      5 TWh ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Heat - decreased / increased demand due to improved insulation or sufficiency or increased needs :
      -60 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )

Usage suggestions

Suggested percentage of roof surface area (Solar thermal) :
      5 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of facade surface area (Solar thermal) :
      10 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of agricultural land for CSP plants (Solar thermal - CSP) :
      0 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of technical potential of liquid manure, sewage and other not materially usable biomass residues used (Biomass residues) :
      80 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of technical potential of biomass grown for energetic use (Biomass surface-dependent) :
      0 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; URL: http://www.sfv.... ; retrieved: 10/2009; )
Usage (slider) (Geothermal) :
      30 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; Comment: We suggest intermittent use of geothermal to balance weather-related fluctuations of wind and solar power )
Suggested percentage of roof surface area (Photovoltaics) :
      80 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of facade surface area (Photovoltaics) :
      80 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of noise barrier surface area (Photovoltaics) :
      10 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage public thoroughfares area (Photovoltaics) :
      3 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of agricultural land for solar parks (Photovoltaics) :
      2 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of agricultural land for wind parks (Wind) :
      15 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of woodland for wind turbines above tree tops (Wind) :
      15 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Suggested percentage of see surface area (water depth < 40m) for offshore wind parks (Wind) :
      20 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )
Usage (slider) (Hydropower) :
      80 % ( Source: SFV; own estimate; )

(Last update: 12.11.2010 19:48:36)